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Introduction of Control Principle of Electronic Throttle System

Introduction of Control Principle of Electronic Throttle System

The function of the throttle is to control the intake air flow of the engine and determine the operating conditions of the engine. The driver controls the throttle opening by operating the accelerator pedal.
There are two ways to connect accelerator pedal and throttle: rigid connection and flexible connection. The traditional accelerator adopts rigid connection, that is, mechanical connection between accelerator pedal and throttle through pull rod or cable drive. Therefore, the throttle opening depends entirely on the position of accelerator pedal, that is, the driver's operation intention. But from the point of view of power and economy, the engine is not always in the best operating condition, and the driver's misoperation also brings hidden danger to the safety.

In the hybrid electric vehicle, because the engine and battery constitute a multi energy power system, the rigid connection mode can not achieve the energy distribution management between the power sources. Therefore, it will be replaced by flexible connection. The flexible connection mode cancels the traditional mechanical connection and controls the throttle position quickly and accurately through the electronic control unit, so it is also called the electronic throttle. Its advantage is that it can determine the "section" (the optimal opening of the door, ensure the best power and fuel economy of the vehicle, and has the control functions of traction control, cruise control, etc., so as to improve the safety and ride comfort.

Throttle control based on engine torque demand
The throttle opening of traditional throttle depends on the driver's operation intention. The throttle opening of the electronic throttle system is not completely determined by the accelerator pedal position, but the control unit calculates the optimal throttle opening according to all the torque requirements of the whole vehicle to the engine under the current driving conditions, so as to control the motor to drive the throttle to the corresponding opening. Therefore, the actual throttle opening is not exactly consistent with the driver's operation intention.

The control unit obtains the required theoretical torque according to the torque demand of the whole vehicle, while the actual torque is obtained through the engine speed, ignition advance angle and engine load signal. In the process of engine torque regulation, the control unit first compares the actual torque with the theoretical torque. If there is a deviation between the two, the engine electronic control system will make the actual torque and the theoretical torque consistent through appropriate regulation.

Optional working mode
The driver can select different working modes through mode switch according to different driving needs, usually including normal mode, power mode and snow mode. The difference is that the response speed of throttle to accelerator pedal is different. In normal mode, the throttle response to the accelerator pedal is appropriate for most driving conditions. In power mode, the throttle speed up the response speed to the acceleration pedal, and the engine can provide additional power. Under the condition of poor adhesion (for example: snow, rainy day), the driver can choose the snow mode to drive the vehicle. At this time, the response of throttle to accelerator pedal is reduced, and the output power of engine is smaller than that under normal conditions, so that the wheels are not easy to slip and the vehicle can drive stably.
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